Frequent urination is passing urine more often than usual. Usual frequency of passing urine varies from individual to individual (6 – 7 times on an average).
- It can manifest as frequently throughout the day or as frequency only during the night (termed as nocturia).
- If associated with the passing of large volume of urine (>3 litres per day), it is termed as Polyuria.
What are the Causes?
Uncontrolled high blood glucose levels
- One major cause is uncontrolled hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels).
- The kidneys cannot completely reabsorb the abnormally high glucose levels present in the blood, and some of this is lost into the urine, where it draws more water resulting in a large volume of urine.
- It is accompanied by other symptoms like increased thirst, fatigue and weight loss.
Urinary tract infection (UTI)
- Another common cause of frequent urination is Urinary Tract Infection (UTI).
- People with diabetes are more susceptible to infections, with urinary tract being a common site for infections.
- This is mainly due to impaired immune defence mechanisms resulting from chronic hyperglycemia itself.
Urinary bladder complication
- Diabetic cystopathy, which is a bladder complication resulting from diabetic autonomic neuropathy, leads to stasis of urine in the bladder.
- This further predisposes the individual to UTI.
- It can also cause urinary incontinence as the person may not be able to sense the fullness of the bladder.
How to Control?
- The underlying cause of frequent urination needs to be identified to control it.
- If it is associated with increased thirst, fatigue and weight loss, high blood glucose levels should be suspected.
- When it is due to UTI or bladder complication will have urgency, pain during micturition or incontinence.
- The central cause for either infections or complications ( bladder) predisposing them is hyperglycemia.
- Therefore, achieving and maintaining an adequate glycemic control to prevent them as well as identifying them at an early stage is essential.
Most often, frequent urination is due to a simple cause like drinking excess water or overactive bladder that does not require any evaluation. Sometimes, it can indicate a severe condition that needs early identification and management. When associated with red or dark coloured urine, abdomen pain or fever, should immediately consult and get a proper evaluation.