How to Stop Frequent Urination in Diabetes?

Dr.Siva Kalyani Jyotula
MBBS, MD, DM (Endocrinology)

Frequent urination is passing urine more often than usual. Usual frequency of passing urine varies from individual to individual (6 – 7 times on an average).

  • It can manifest as frequently throughout the day or as frequency only during the night (termed as nocturia).
  • If associated with the passing of large volume of urine (>3 litres per day), it is termed as Polyuria.

What are the Causes?

Uncontrolled high blood glucose levels

  • One major cause is uncontrolled hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels).
  • The kidneys cannot completely reabsorb the abnormally high glucose levels present in the blood, and some of this is lost into the urine, where it draws more water resulting in a large volume of urine.
  • It is accompanied by other symptoms like increased thirst, fatigue and weight loss.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

  • Another common cause of frequent urination is Urinary Tract Infection (UTI).
  • People with diabetes are more susceptible to infections, with urinary tract being a common site for infections.
  • This is mainly due to impaired immune defence mechanisms resulting from chronic hyperglycemia itself.

Urinary bladder complication

  • Diabetic cystopathy, which is a bladder complication resulting from diabetic autonomic neuropathy, leads to stasis of urine in the bladder.
  • This further predisposes the individual to UTI.
  • It can also cause urinary incontinence as the person may not be able to sense the fullness of the bladder.

How to Control?

  • The underlying cause of frequent urination needs to be identified to control it.
  • If it is associated with increased thirst, fatigue and weight loss, high blood glucose levels should be suspected.
  • When it is due to UTI or bladder complication will have urgency, pain during micturition or incontinence.
  • The central cause for either infections or complications ( bladder) predisposing them is hyperglycemia.
  • Therefore, achieving and maintaining an adequate glycemic control to prevent them as well as identifying them at an early stage is essential.

Most often, frequent urination is due to a simple cause like drinking excess water or overactive bladder that does not require any evaluation. Sometimes, it can indicate a severe condition that needs early identification and management. When associated with red or dark coloured urine, abdomen pain or fever, should immediately consult and get a proper evaluation.