- the Greek word diabetes meaning siphon – to pass through
- the Latin word mellitus meaning honeyed or sweet or sugar
Diabetes mellitus is a condition where excess sugar/glucose is found in blood as well as urine which leads to excessive urination like a siphon.
What happens in Diabetes Mellitus and Why it occurs?
- Glucose provides energy to human body, it’s vital organ and at tissue level. However to utilize this blood glucose Insulin hormone is required.
- Insulin hormone is formed by beta cell of pancreas.
- With lack of insulin or insufficient insulin blood glucose is not utilized by body and it gets accumulated in blood.
- This increase in blood glucose level leads to excessive urination along with excretion of glucose in urine collectively known as DIABETES MELLITUS.
- the Greek word Diabetes meaning siphon – to pass through
- the Insipidus meaning having too little/no taste or flavour or colour.
What happens in Diabetes Insipidus?
- Diabetes Insipidus means passage of large volumes (>3 litre per day) of dilute urine which is usually colorless and odourless.
- Diabetes Insipidus is not the same as diabetes mellitus. Though both disease starts with same name “Diabetes” which means they pass excessive urine like in siphon but they have different cause.
- Diabetes mellitus occurs due to lack of insulin hormone or ineffective hormone which leads to high blood sugar (glucose).
- Diabetes Insipidus occurs due to lack of ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone) or ineffective ADH. ADH also called as Vasopressin and its responsible for balancing water in the body.
- The amount of water passing in the urine is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It gives command to the kidney to hold more water.
- When ADH level is low or its ineffective then kidney cannot hold water and patient pass excessive urine and feel more thirsty.
|Diabetes Mellitus||Diabetes Insipidus|
|Disease Burden||Common (5 – 15 in 100 Population)||Rare (1 in 10,000)|
|Symptoms||Increased Urination ( 3 – 5lit/day), Increased Thirst||More Severe Urination (5 – 15 lit/day) & Increased Thirst|
|Causes||Insulin Deficiency or Insulin Resistance||Vasopressin (ADH) Deficiency or Vasopressin Resistance|
|Broad Types||Type 1 & Type 2||Central & Nephrogenic|
|Affected Organ||Pancreas||Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland|
|Treatment||Diet, Exercise, Oral Medication, Insulin||Hormone Containing Tablet (Desmopressin)|