Difference between Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Mellitus

  • the Greek word diabetes meaning siphon – to pass through
  • the Latin word mellitus meaning honeyed or sweet or sugar

Diabetes mellitus is a condition where excess sugar/glucose is found in blood as well as urine which leads to excessive urination like a siphon.

What happens in Diabetes Mellitus and Why it occurs?

  • Glucose provides energy to human body, it’s vital organ and at tissue level. However to utilize this blood glucose Insulin hormone is required.
  • Insulin hormone is formed by beta cell of pancreas.
  • With lack of insulin or insufficient insulin blood glucose is not utilized by body and it gets accumulated in blood.
  • This increase in blood glucose level leads to excessive urination along with excretion of glucose in urine collectively known as DIABETES MELLITUS.

difference between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

  • the Greek word Diabetes meaning siphon – to pass through
  • the Insipidus meaning having too little/no taste or flavour or colour.

What happens in Diabetes Insipidus?

  • Diabetes Insipidus means passage of large volumes (>3 litre per day) of dilute urine which is usually colorless and odourless.
  • Diabetes Insipidus is not the same as diabetes mellitus. Though both disease starts with same name “Diabetes” which means they pass excessive urine like in siphon but they have different cause.
  • Diabetes mellitus occurs due to lack of insulin hormone or ineffective hormone which leads to high blood sugar (glucose).
  • Diabetes Insipidus occurs due to lack of ADH (Anti-Diuretic Hormone) or ineffective ADH. ADH also called as Vasopressin and its responsible for balancing water in the body.
  • The amount of water passing in the urine is controlled by antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It gives command to the kidney to hold more water.
  • When ADH level is low or its ineffective then kidney cannot hold water and patient pass excessive urine and feel more thirsty.
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Insipidus
Disease Burden Common (5 – 15 in 100 Population) Rare (1 in 10,000)
Symptoms Increased Urination ( 3 – 5lit/day), Increased Thirst More Severe Urination (5 – 15 lit/day) & Increased Thirst
Causes Insulin Deficiency or Insulin Resistance Vasopressin (ADH) Deficiency or Vasopressin Resistance
Diagnosis
  • Increase Blood Glucose & Increase Urine Glucose
  • Urine Concentration Normal
  • Urine is Sweet in taste
  • Blood & Urine Glucose Is Normal
  • Urine Is Very Dilute (Not Concentrated)
  • Urine is Tasteless & Odorless
Broad Types Type 1 & Type 2 Central & Nephrogenic
Affected Organ Pancreas Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland
Treatment Diet, Exercise, Oral Medication, Insulin Hormone Containing Tablet (Desmopressin)
+ References
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