Although the question looks pretty simple and straight forward, the answer is quite complex.
There are different types of diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes is due to the inability of pancreas to produce insulin, the hormone which controls blood sugar. It is caused by auto-immune cause and other unknown reasons. But consumption of sugar isn’t a trigger.
- Type 2 Diabetes, which is the most common type, genetic reasons and gaining weight more than the ideal weight, can lead to insulin resistance and diabetes.
By sugar we mean total sugar which means natural and artificial, and can mean chemically glucose, fructose and/or sucrose.
All sugars are carbohydrates and have high calorie content, thereby their consumption can lead to weight gain, which, in a predisposed individual can lead to diabetes.
In short, eating sugar doesn’t cause Type 1 diabetes. Eating sugar doesn’t cause Type 2 diabetes directly, but over a period of time can lead to obesity which can predispose to type 2 diabetes.